Popphaw (Fraternal) Relationship between China and Myanmar

Popphaw (Fraternal) Relationship between China and Myanmar

By Umnai Kui

Abstract

“China is a very good neighbor to Myanmar.” This is a claim you often hear – from generals, government ministers, and members of the legislative council. Than Shwe, the former head of the military dictatorship, said that he totally and firmly agreed with the political and economic system of China, and he would continue tosupport China and learn from China’s policies.[1] U Aung Min, a minister of the President’s Office, said that the government appreciated China, because its support helped them survive when the country was in chaos in 1988. China allowed them to import goods through Muse gateway.[2] He added, “We are grateful toChina for its continuously staunch support while we were isolated from the international community.”[3]U Soe Thein, a minister in the President’s Office, often says,China is our helper; we are indebted to China for its help.[4]The President’s Office, also announced in Burmese that both presidents appreciated their sibling relationship “popphaw” means being born from a mother.[5] China Ambassador Hong Liang proudly said that china helped Myanmar flood victims because they are fraternal brothers and china never stops helping Myanmar whenever her people are in trouble.[6]Is China a good neighbor towards the Myanmar people? Why do ex–generals andauthorities praise and thank China? Does China have a fair and just political and economic relationship with Myanmar? I will analyze it from theology from below perspective. This perspective pays attention to the common good.Theologically and socially this brotherly connection is unjust and unfair becauseit exploitspublic property.

PoliticalAngle

China vetoed any UN Security Council action against the military junta. After the military government crushed the popular uprising in 1988, the United States imposed economic sanctions against Myanmar. China did not respect the sanctions and seized the chance to profit fromMyanmar’s natural resources such as natural gas, oil, minerals, jade, gold, metals, hydroelectric power, and timber.[7] This had a very big impact on deforestation through dam and gas pipeline construction.Whenever there were attempts to censor Myanmar’s military government, China used its veto.[8] Peter Heinlein reported that Russia and China vetoed the United Nations Resolution on Burma on 12 January 2007.[9]Min Zin states that in August 2007, China, India, and Republic of Korea applied to invest in natural resources in Myanmar. India and Korea paid a much higher price than China did. The result is that China got investment opportunities. The reason is that China had used its veto power for the generals.[10]Supported by China, the military government did not have to worry about the actions of the EU, USA, and UN. The more Myanmar was sanctioned, the happier and more fortunate China was because it received investment opportunities. If the relations between the EU, USA and Myanmar improved, China would not profit so much. It was also a great chance for prolonging the authority for the juntas. The longer they control Myanmar, the more economic opportunities the elites hold. All the help China gave the military dictators enabled it to more or less control the Myanmar government politically.

Economic Perspective

China’s policy on Myanmar presented great economic opportunities for the ruling class and its friends. It is also a very wonderful opportunity for China. Hannah Beech stated that the Chinese leader Xi Jinping promised the citizensnationwide and personal prosperity if the people let him (party) rule the country.[11]The longer the military government controlled Myanmar, the more economic opportunities they enjoy. The longer China sided with the regime, the more benefits it received. China never concerns itself with people’s suffering,only with economic investments. Former military generals and friends, and Chinese companies shared Myanmar’s investment opportunities. Military rule made Myanmar one of the poorest and most corrupt countries.Most of the legislative council members and ministers of civil departments are retired generals.[12] According to Aung Tun, China is an excellent neighbor for these retired generals and legislative members.

The Myanmar generals view China as an ‘excellent neighbor,’ whose huge investments helped keep their regime alive. The Myanmar people, however, have suffered under China’s staunch support of the brutal regime. Consequently, anti-Chinese sentiment has spread widely among the public. Whenever there is a serious discussion about Myanmar at the UN, the Myanmar public knows that China (and perhaps Russia) will block any resolution that could aid their position.[13]

Those who profited from China’s support always claim that China is a very good neighbor. I found out that some former generals, including Than Shwe, have been learning from China and practicing the self-enrichment model of economics. In fact, the real problem in Myanmar is cronyism. By that I mean the Chinese and the Burmese elite are friends who fix deals to the advantage of each other. NaingKo KO claims it was senior general Than Shwe who created this legacy of corruption.[14] He and other ex-generals were quick to imitate the Chinese model of self-enrichment.

Despite many positive changes like greater media freedom, release of most political prisoners, and freedom of demonstration, the Myanmar people are still suffering from exploitation by the cronies and power-holders.[15] Instead of giving the poor places to settle, the government sells public lands. Aung Ye Ko’s and ToewaiPhoy reported that fifty-eight thousand people squatting in Yangon were forced to move by the government.[16] The power-holders controlled 2,500,000 acres of public land and sold them to the cronies. The military regime planned to sell 3,400 public lands, buildings, and industries. Private companies owned by relatives and friends of the generals take over about two thousand projects.[17]“By 2013, 5.3 million acres of land - 35 times the size of Myanmar’s capital, Yangon - had been leased to investors for agriculture. More than a quarter of this total is now covered by rubber plantations.”[18]It is good news that some acres of the land have been returned to the farmers and some farmers are given compensation.[19]Some farmers are imprisoned because they asked for compensation for their lands. Myanmar is one of the poorest countries in Asia. The population of Myanmar is 51.4 million. Her per-capita Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is US$ 1,105. 37.5 percent of the population is still under the poverty line.[20]

Nyut Lwin (RIT) calculates that Myanmar signed 684 projects with foreign companies during the rule of the various military regimes. Along the Thanlwin River, Chinese and Thai companies (Asia World and IGE) built six dams for hydroelectric power at a cost of approximately a thousand million US dollars. The result is Myanmar will receive only ten percent of the power.[21] Asia World Company is owned by Steven Law (Tun Myit Naing) who is partnered with the China power Investment Corporation. They financed the construction of dams (including Myitsong) roads, hydroelectric power plants, gas pipelines, and oil production.[22]

The Myitsong dam project is very controversial. It is the meeting point of the Maykah and Malikha Rivers, 150 miles away from Bamaw, Kachin State, Myanmar. Starting from Myitsong, the river is called the Irrawaddy.[23] In support of China, an unnamed minister said they would build Myitsong dam despite the fact the people of Myanmar were against it.[24] The military government led by Than Shwe signed an agreement with the CIP Company of China and Asia World Company of Myanmar for the Myitsong project but almost all of Myanmar people and the natives around the river disagreed with this project and asked to save the river. Theauthorities neverconsider the environmental impact, how it will lead to the extinction of species, and the destruction of the Irrawaddy River, flowing from Kachin State to the Irrawaddy Division. Out of the entire profits, CIP will get80 percent, Asia World 15 present and the Myanmar government 5 percent. Five other dams have been built north of Myitsong.[25] Another example is sky-net telecommunication company that has worked in Myanmar for six years. From it Myanmar profits 4 percent.[26]

Sky net is owned by U Kyaw Win, who is Chinese but was born in Myanmar. His company is related to aChinese company in Unum province, People’s Republic of China.[27] If the above calculations ten, five, and four percent are correct, it is true that Myanmar people are extremely exploited. The landowners, Myanmar people, receive only a very limited amount of money while China companies gain about 90 percent of the profits. The primary share of the profit from the Letpataung mining is as follows. Under the terms of the thirty year of JV agreement Myanmar Government was to receive 16.8% of available profit, UMEHL(the Chinese Company) 13.8% and Wanbao (the Myanmar Company) 13.3%. The remaining about 50% is to cover the cost of production.[28] After investigation, the percentage of sharing changed. 51% goes to the Myanmar Government, 19% goes to local partner (Wanbao), and 30% goes to UMEHL. If they lacked reinvestigation Myanmar would gain very little.[29] The calculation change from 16.8% to 51% shows how Myanmar people are exploited unfairly and unjustly.

Steinberg and Fanobserve thatChina and Myanmar projects lackinternational social and environmental standard and profits for Burma and its people. All the hydroelectric power is transmitted to China.[30]They also find that china values the resources of Myanmar very much because it consumes lots of natural resources.[31] The engagement of both Myanmar and China businesses are very poor in quality.[32]Steinberg and Fan are doubtful whether Myanmar and China are paukpaw or simply based on mutual bilateral need is unclear.[33]The brotherly and fraternally relationship between the two countries’ governments causes the exploitation of public property.

Positive Aspect

China manufactures many goods and exports, both good and bad qualities, all over the world. In general, Chinaexports bad quality goods to developing countries and good quality good to Europe and America. The reason is that less developed countries like Cambodia and Myanmar cannot afford to purchase expensive goods. For example, the price of a Chinese made motorbikeis reasonable and affordable. Many Myanmar people use them. Thai and Japanese made bikes are much more expensive and stronger than Chinese-made, but for some people they are unaffordable.China welcomes many foreign companies and factories.The result is that China suffers from the highestair and water pollution.In China,quality air and water pollution are serious and growing problems.Another negative environmental impact is caused by the waste of limited natural resources involved in mass manufacturing so many cheap, poor quality goods that will soon need replacing.[34]

According to the standard free market model, China is right to profit from Myanmar no matter how much people suffer so long as both governments agree. We are all free to decide the price of goods we want to sell. Everyone is free to buy the goods they want. The government does not interfere with the market price.[35] China is free to import goods from Myanmar and export goods to Myanmar. To quote a Chinese writer, “Myanmar is one of the biggest gifts from God.”[36]Who gets the gift and who pays for it?

Confucius’ philosophy of guanxi teaches theChinese to make use of others. Guanxi means connections and is a key to business, politics, and much else.It is “the practice of networking based on reciprocity, gift-giving, socializing and mutual favors — sometimes including red packets, or cash-filled envelopes.” It also means sticking with and submitting to authorities for personal gains. An author,therefore, says that Chinese business is associated with “unfair powers, corruption, and the culture of cronyism.” Canadian business people are also encouraged to give the best gifts to Chinese managers.[37]Playing the guanxi game is unavoidable, especially, for foreign capitalists who would like to invest in China. Chinese business people around the world build guanxi networks.[38]If we generally observe the guanxi game,“using friends for personal gain is lauded as the path to true friendships.”[39] It seems to me that guanxi starts with building friendship and then leads to corruption and exploitation. If what I understand is correct, Chinese companiesmight offer big gifts to authorities in Myanmar in exchange for investment opportunities. Quoting the words of Zhang Qiang, a jade mine investor, Kristine Kwok articulated that Zhang gave tens of thousands of yuan to the Myanmar officials and middle men to get the jade investment.[40] Perhaps, Zhang unofficially gave the finance to Myanmar officials and middle men. It might not go to public finance rather to the officials’ and middle men’s pockets.

Humanitarian Aspect

Even though China Ambassador Hong Liang is very proud of China’s contribution to Myanmar,[41] it is incomparable with those of Japan and EU. Based on the resources I could receive, China’s contribution to Myanmar is much less than other countries. The Sumitomo Chemical (China) Co., Ltd and Glorious Myanmar Investment Co., Ltd donated 40,000 mosquito nets and 1000 sets of solar power equipment to Myanmar for people in remote areas.[42] “Two Chinese friendship associations have donated 100,000 yuan (about 15,250 U.S. dollars) to earthquake-hit Myanmar, according to a press release from the Chinese People's Association for Friendship with Foreign Countries (CPAFFC) on Wednesday.”[43]Myanmar China Association Fellowship donated 2200 bags of rice worth US$ 6600 for earthquake victims.[44] China's southern region provided US$ 250,000 to cyclone-battered Myanmar.[45]The Chinese Companies and friends donated foods and equipment worth K60[46] million (the equivalent of US$ 80,000). “The relief aid included 1,000 bags of rice, 1,000 units of tents, 500 boxes of milk powder, and 10,000 boxes of instant noodle, with a total value of 2.41 million yuan ($395,081).”[47] The total amount of China’s donation is about US$750,000.

The Myanmar donorlist includes “Australia, Denmark, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Korea, Sweden, Switzerland, United States, and United Kingdom.”[48]Why is China, a good neighbor, not on the list? It seems that donations from China aresmaller than those of other donors. There are lots of NGOs from European countries. I do not know any Chinese NGOs working for the poor in Myanmar. China invests most on profitable projects in Myanmar but funds no NGOs here and among the donor countries it makes the smallest donations. At the same time, we can generally observe that Chinese policy heavily emphasizes profits.

Myanmar Corporation, Tamawayama got a loan US$100 million from Exim Bank of China at the interest rate of 4.5 percent. Compared with loans available from Japan and European countries,the interest rate is too high. On July 4, 2015 the President of Japan, Sein So Abe promised Myanmar President U Thein Sein to loan Myanmar 100 billion yuanat an interest rate of (0.001) percentage. That loan will be used for the development of Myanmar.[49]The author calculates that Japan takes only 1 or 2 percent interest, European countries take 2 or 3 percent of interest whereas China takes 4.5 percent. The author calculated that this interest would be US$ 45 million for ten years. Some suggested that we need to urge Exim Bank to lower the interest rate.[50]In contrast, the World Bank lent the Myanmar Government US$ 440 million without any interest.[51]

U Thein Sein, the president of Myanmar visited Japan on December 12, 2014.[52] Myanmar owes Japan yen 500 billion. Japan forgave 2.8 billion of the debt. Japan also will forgive a further yen 176.1 billion yen depending on the success of the reform movement in Myanmar.[53] Germany also forgave 1.084 billion euro, which is half of Myanmar’s debt to Germany.[54] China hardly invests forenvironmental sustainability; she destroyed the forest building dams and a very long gas pipeline crossing in the midst of Myanmar. If Chinawere concerned about the Myanmar people, it would have contributedat least as much aid as Japan and Germany did, or it would have forgiven Myanmar’s debts. China is very quick to obtain profitable investment opportunities but very slow to help make Myanmar sustainable.

Anti-China Movement

Myanmar Officials still claim that China is their helper and good neighbor whereasMyanmar peopleprotest against China’s policy towards Myanmar. The reasons are China helped dictatorship prolong their power and both of them exploited public properties. Khin Oo Ta articulates that the government officers always side with China to assure the safety and success of Chinese projects,[55] but theycannot point to what China has done for Myanmar people. The Asian people’s forum was held in Yangon from March 21 to 23, 2014. The director of the forum, Mrs. Premrudee Daoroung, pronounced that China’s investment in Asian countries is controversial. Instead of blaming China, she blamed local governments foruncritically accepting Chinese companies with neither transparencynor accountability in the transaction.[56] I agree with this view. If local government did not admit the Chinese, they would not work in Myanmar.

Dan Stater, associate professor at Chicago University, and Joseph Wong, professor at Toronto University, figure out that Myanmar and China built a very close relationship under the military dictatorship even if some government officials disagree with their relationship. In fact, China is ruthlessly pragmatic in its pursuit of what it interests, in relations withboth dictatorial and democratic regimes.[57]DVB interviewed with Yang Tolang, the ambassador of China, on the relationship between China and Myanmar. Tolang pointed out three huge projects, a gas pipeline, the Myitsong dam, and the Letpadong copper mine. The interviewer asked Tolang how much Myanmar people would profit from the Chinese investments. He vaguely claimed that both Myanmar and China would profit from them. He also said he would like to continue the Myitsong dam project.[58]Even though he knew how much profit would go to Myanmar people and how dangerous Myitsong dam project is to the environment, he keeps silent.  

Japan, the Philippines, Vietnam, and Malaysia all have disputes with China over controversial sea areas. In Vietnam an anti-China disturbance led to two Chinese dying and nearly two hundred Chinese being wounded.[59]The Chinese government claimsthat almost all the South China Sea belongs to it, but Vietnam, Philippines, Brunel, and Malaysia state that parts of the South China Sea belong to them. The disputed seas are very rich in natural resources such as oil and gas. The Asean Meeting warned China not to occupy the South China Sea(not to build airports), and advised it to respect Asean’s voice as rising tensions between China and the Asean countries endangerpeace andstability in the entire region.[60]China and India also have a border dispute, as well as being economic competitors.[61]Given all this, we generallycan conclude that China causes problems forits neighbors.

One Chinese company, the North Mining Investment Company, applied to mine the natural resources nickel and copper from the Muataung and Phataung (hills), in Tidim Township, Chin State, Myanmar. Chin political parties, villages around the hills, and most of the Chins opposed these projects because there was no transparency or accountability. They preferred companies from democratic countries to Chinese companies.[62] If the Chinese wereallowed to work on these projects, the Chins would hardly profit from it, even though they are the owners of the lands.

A Chinese company has been mining nickel and copper metals from Letpataungtong. Some political parties and the native people do not agree with this. On December 10, 2013, hundreds of people demonstrated against the Chinese company in front of the Chinese embassy. The flag of the Republic of China was burned. The government arrested two persons, Daw Naw Own Hla and Ko Tin Thut Paing for burning the flag.[63] On December 22, 2014, to make fencing, workers of Won Pong Company occupied lands of the villagers who did not take compensation. Some took compensation and some refused to take it. By forced the company invaded the land of villagers who had rejected compensation. Theysmashed the crops of some villagers. The police shot Daw Khin Win dead and wounded about ten more.It caused protests against Chinese companies in Mandalay and Yangon.[64]

Over one hundred and fifty-five Chinese involved in illegal lumbering and timber transport were arrested,and about five-hundred vehicles seized north of Shan State in the first and second weeks of January 2015.[65]They were retained until 22 July 2015 andon the same day, the Myitkyina Township Court, Kachin State, announced that they were sentenced to life long imprisonment under Article 6(a) of the public Property protection Act for illegal logging. On 22 July, the Chines ministry of Foreign Affairs Lu Kang spokesman released condemning the harsh sentencing. To my surprise, they were all released in August 2015 after eight months of detainment.[66]People protest against china not because they are Chinese but because they practice unfair and unjust social-economic policy. Projects like those mentioned along with evident and unfair favoritism arouse anti-Chinese feelings in the hearts of the people of Myanmar.

Theological Reflection

I would like to reflect on the relationship between Myanmar and Chinafrom a theology-from-below perspective. It means reading the Bible through the eyes of thesuffering and marginalized in particular and the Myanmar people as a whole.A theology-from-below perspective reflects the lives of ordinary people and constitutes a critique of injustice.

Theology from Below

Whereas a theology-from-below approach is an inductivemodel,theology-from-above is a deductive method.A theology-from-below approach is based on experiences, in the here and now, and goes to theoretical framework.[67]The second bases on concepts and goes down to human experiences.It starts with an abstract thinking, and then goes to practical application.History-from-above emphasizes the greatness of kings, emperors, and dictators, whereas history-from-below focuses on the suffering people under the elites. Elite history does not concern itself with the history of ordinary people. The elites could live an easy and comfortable life because the ordinary people suffered.[68] The reason is that history is a record of what the elitesthought and did, and is written by the ruling class, not by suffering people. U Ye Htute the minister of Information and Media said that most of the media– referring to the press, radio, TV and the Internet,are owned by business people (the rich). The rich owners can override the editors and journalists,so that the latter lose their authority.[69]The elites and rich control the media and write their history. Some Myanmar elites give praises to China for its love and help. This history is written from a ruling class perspective.

            History-from-below is the history of ordinary people, their tragedy, suffering, and death.[70]It is grassroots history.[71]Yes, but it is also the history of their rebellion against the ruling class and their efforts to change things. Admittedly, many are passive and even aid and abet their oppressors. But many resist. History-from-below gives them an active role in which they are not simple victims.It started as a reaction against the traditional histories which concerned themselves almost exclusively with the political, social and religious elites.[72]The task of history-from-below is to rediscover the unknown history of peasants, working class, and ethnic minority people. History-from-below makes people aware of a new subject of history. History from below exposes people’s life-suffering, oppression, exploitation, death, and discrimination under the ruling classes. For example, the Shwe Dagon Pagoda, Yangon, Myanmar, is one of the most famous pagodas in the world. It is not known how many ordinary people suffered and sacrificed their lives toconstructthis pagoda. The reason is that history is a record of the elites, written by the ruling class not by the suffering people.

It is very important to see history from the perspective of both the elite and general population. The first perspective is an optimistic view of China, whereas the second is a pessimistic assessment of it. The elites’ view of China could not represent the people’s experience. While China’s investment mainly increases the wealth of the ruling class, it extinguishes the environment of Myanmar and exploits the people of Myanmar. As long as we see China only from the perspective of the elites, we will hardly see theweaknesses and omissions of this perspective.If we study the relationship between China and Myanmar from a history-from-below perspective, China, some Myanmar officials and cronies are exploiters. Chinese companies and ex-generals’ related companies exploit Myanmar’s economics. This exploitation for me is stealing the food of the poor (ordinary people). It is against the Biblical teaching. “You shall not defraud your neighbor; you shall not steal; and you shall not keep for yourself the wages of a laborer until morning. You shall not render an unjust judgement; you shall not be partial to the poor; with justice you shall judge your neighbors (Leviticus 19: 13, 15).” The two neighbors’ attitude towards the public ownership is unfair and unjust. Their wealth and riches are full of public blood, violence, and exploitation (Micah 6:9).

Ethical Viewpoint

Although quanxi philosophy and free market economy agrees withChina’s economic system, ethical theology opposes it because the behavior of China towards Myanmar is none other than self-enrichment. China loves the natural resources of Myanmar, not its people. Even though the guanxi game allows using friends for personal gain, Jesus’ teaching opposes it. The Bible teaches thatthe ideal friend is one who lays down his life for his friends (John 15:14). The one who exploits his or her friends is a false friend and neighbor. The Christian norm for a good neighbor is demonstrated in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10: 35-37). Richard Chan Chum Hei’s explains that the main teaching of the Good Samaritan story is that loving our neighbors is as important as loving God. A good neighbor here denotes a person who loves others or has a compassionate mind towards others. Unless you have compassion and love for others, you cannot begin to help.[73] The less compassion we have, the less we forgive and help others. Action is the fulfillment this compassion. Our action displays our heart. Thus, being a good neighbor means feeling compassion,and practicing it through acts of compassion. The Good Samaritan’s neighbor is the wounded person. We judge whether persons are good neighbors by their actions. By this standard, China’s exploitation shows us that China loves Myanmar people less than other countries do.

Joel Zap Hlei Kip,[74] a lecturer at Chin Christian Institute of Christian Theology (CCIT), studies the story of the Good Samaritan and points out three different ethical norms. The first ethical norm is yours is mine and mine is mine ethics. It is the ethics of the robbers and self-enrichment. It collects from others. It never offers. Another one is yours is yours and mine is mine ethics. It is the ethics of the Levite and priest. They walked on their own way. They neither helped the man nor robbed him. Last, is mine is yours ethics. It is the ethics of the Good Samaritan. He took care of the man, spending what he had. In my opinion, China is acting on the first ethical standard, that of the robbers and thieves. To the ruling class, China has a give and take ethics but to the people, it practices your is mine and mine is mine ethics. China donates much less than other countries to Myanmar and benefits a lot from Myanmar. China’s continuing self-enrichment ethical policy is causing the anti-China movement in Myanmar today.

Conclusion

China’s neighborliness is very helpful forthe elites of Myanmar, but terrible for the people. Through their crony relationship with the former generals, China gained opportunities to exploit what rightfully belonged to the Myanmar people. From the exploitation of the country’s natural resources, the Myanmar government receives about ten percent of the profits while China takes about ninety percent. This ten percent will go to the education and health care budget of the country. Is it just and fair that the people who are the real owners of the landonly get ten percent while foreign companies and their co-workersgrab ninety percent?

The partners of Chinese companies are some elites and their relatives. They are right to say that China helped Myanmar a lot from their point of view (history-from-above perspective) because China helped them prolong their power and benefit from economics opportunities. If we see it from the people’s perspective (theology-from-below), China’s attitude is very far away from good neighbor ethics. China does not care that people suffer in Myanmar and sustainability of the environment. China made the least donation to Myanmar compared with other countries. It tries to dominate the profitable economic chances. It keeps what it has in its hands. It works to receive from other as much as possible. Its stand point is correct if we see it as a free market economy policy and guanxi philosophy. But from an ethical point of view, China’s love and compassion are so limited. Therefore, the Myanmar people must carefully watch China’s projects to ensure that they are just and fair and do not do violence against the environment. I hope that the new elected governmentled by National League for Democracy (NLD) will holda higher standard of transparency and accountability on foreign investments. If the investment policy is still unjust and unfair, and violent to the environment, Myanmar people need to oppose it.

Bibliography

Books

David I. Steinberg.Burma: The State of Myanmar.Washington D.C: Georgetown University Press, 2011.

David I Steinberg and Hongwei Fan.Modern China-Myanmar Relations: Dilemmas of Mutual Dependence.Copenhagen, Demark: NIAS Press, 2012.

Peterson, Dean R. A Concise History of Christianity.Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1993.

Hobsbawm, E.J. “History from Below-Some Reflection.”History from Below, edited by Frederick Krantz. New York and Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988.13-27.

Journals

Aye Tiri Win: “Kaba ban yeh a too meh cheingoidollertaan 140 hliatsitkandahhma tong saui mi” The World Bank’s Loan US$ 140 million received by Myanmar is to be invested on Electric power.” The Modern Weekly Journal Vol. 364. (July 5, 2013): 1- 2.

Bama AaMaan: “Sakaaphawphanmia,sakaathehmazatihpiah.” (Our Words shows our hearts). The News Watch Weekly Journal (November 26, 2013): 11.

Beech, Hannah. “China’s Power Play: Why the nation and its leader are flexing their muscles.”The Time Vol.186. No. 11, (2015):26-29.

Chan Chum Hei, Richard:“An Exegitical Study of the Good Samaritan” in RAYS: MIT Journal of Theology. Vol., 11, January, (2010): 40-50.

Iris: “Tit khotihtayokngaingta 120 khanhaa a yeyuhmuhpyitumyasaukyih ne pi, tiseiupadi ayah a soeyahkah a yeiyou mi.” (Over 120 Chinese who illegally entered into Myanmar and stole the wood would be taken action in accordance with the law of Myanmar.” Pyi Myanmar Journal, No. 956.(15 January 2015): 15.

Linn Thaeit: “Lepataungtaaungtwe Sun Kheh le pi: PointlinnMyntaHmuh le Shih, SimanKhahkhaihmuhtuai ma hmakheh yin Teyok le khauk ma ne yah pa bu.” (Blood Shed in Lepataung: China would not be fear of, if the project would have had accountability and well administration).The Myanmar Herald, Vol. 3, No.43, (January 3-9, 2015): 19-20.

KhinOo Ta: “Taya letluatsakamyanehCheikkhaing ye party ye 2013 alaala,” (Careless words and USDP’s 2015 Election).The Irrawaddy Weekly Journal, vol.I, No., 10.(March 9, 2014):8- 9.

Kristine Kwok, Kristine. “Myanmar’s Dilemma.”The South China Morning Post.(Friday December 4, 2015).

MyoKyaw: “U Ye Htut Laing Ma ne yeh law Huh la kyih ta Daw Aung San Suu Kyi Pyaw.” (Aung San Suu Kyi said that I came here to see whether U Ye Htut is clever).The Hot News Weekly, Vol., 5, No., 241.(May 8-14, 2015). 34.

NL: “Myanmar Naing Ngan ih a chekhaan a sokaongmyiaphoiphoeyee a tuaet Japan kah US Dollar taan 800 thokche mi.” (Japan will loan US Dollar 800 million to Myanmar for the development of basic infrastructure). Hit Thait Journal, Vol., II, No. 33, (214): 10-11.

Nyut Lwin: “Pyetunpaingngoitiopytukopyanpe pa.” (Return the finance of the Public to the Public).The News Watch Weekly. Vol. 8, No.,39.(March 3, 2014): 11-12.

SYMZ/KZY: “Myitsong a pi tatyatsaingyanlu 4000 sandahphawthot.” (400 People demonstrate for stopping Myitson Dam Project.”The Democracy Today, Vol. 1, No., 15 (March 15, 2014): 17.

ThawngTuye Bah Oh: “Democracy or Demo-crony.” The Sun Rays Weekly News Journal, vol. 1, No. 25. (19 April 2014).

Tin MaungHtwe: “Khaihkhaingye party kongsawng a choh yin chehmuhtintantehyanHantavati U Win Tin Thaik Ton,” (U Win Tin advised some USDP members to take Ethics Courses).”The Public Image Journal, Vol., II, No. 21 (Friday, February 21, 2014): A.

Win Latt: “Ta ngeihngeihsisennetawirrawady.” (Flowing Irrawady). In Irrawadykotawh ma luan chin pa (I remember the Irrawady). Edit, DeweiTanhsin, Seng Yong Sape, No. 5, (212):24-26.

Yamin: “Democracy a yeehmaathatakhaanko, pelokshintaankhuahpehma le.” (How far the opposition parties could have opportunity for struggle for its survival).The Street View Journal, vol. 3, No.,9. (March 3, 2014):18.

YondenLhatoo: “Asian rivals ‘can compete and thrive.” The South China Morning Post.,Volum 71, N0. 262. (Monday, September 21, 2015): A1.

Editor: “Myanmar, Tayok, America, tong pointsaingpupong la ngainghma la.” (Can Myanmar, China, and American cooperate in the Future?) The News Watch Weekly Journal (Decenber 17, 2013).38.

Editor: “2010 Toinpomokyawcialatoaw Asia World Company neh U Thun MyitNaing.” (Asia World Company and U Thun MyitNaing becoming Popular in 2010).TheWeekly Eleven Journal(December 29, 2010).

Magazine and Preaching

Pyay ToauiNaing. “2015 hma vision tuaiaa paying the pauimyophyit se chin te” (I Want 2015 Election be competing of Visions). Interview with U Min Zen by Editorial Board .YaNanh Tit Magazine, No 60, (December 2013):14-19.

Beech, Hannah: “China’s Power Play: Why the nation and its leader are flexing their muscles.”The Time Vol.186, No. 11, (2015).26-29.

ZaHleiKap, Joel. He is a lecturer at the Chin Christian Institute of Theology (CCIT), Falam, Chin State, Myanmar. He got his doctorate from the Divinity School of Chung Chi College, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong in 2013. This ethical norm is taken from Joel’s preaching at the Divinity School.

Newspapers

ANgeThwe and Nilar. “Myanmar ihte-u chin winngweti, American Dollar 1105 phitpi, senyehmuhhnong 37.5 sihne taw kyawk,deta a twin senyehmuhhnong a mhit ma song ngaingngantenaingnganphit ne se phitchawngkabah ban ih a sinyen khan satweinphawpyah” (Myanmar’s GDP is 1105 US$ and 37.5 population is under poverty line that it is one of the poorest countries Asia region).”The Daily Eleven News, 22 February 2015, (Sunday), p.17.

AFP. “Asean Warns China, its position on South China Sea Area can destroy peace between China and Asean Countries), The Daily Eleven News, 28 April 2015 (Tuesday), p.12.

Aung Ye Ko and ToewaiPhoy. “Yangon TaingTatahkyi shih chukyawainthongsuh 53000 kopheshiayantatihpeisamyathatmaan pep oh” (A letter of Warning to remove from their illegal residence reached 53000 families in yangon).”The Daily Eleven Newspaper, March 2, 2014, p.20.

Aung Khin, U. “Myitsongsimaankengkoshehtoloksaung lo ti huh pyawkyia la taw tayoktaanamatkyi” (China ambassador said he wanted to continue Myitsong dam project).” TheMoontehne Weekly News, vol.,1. No.12., 7 March, 2014. P.c.

Editor.“Vietnam tuontayoksanhchin ye sandahpyahhmuhmya a tuatsoeyengkyong America Pyaui Kya, a nyeinpuayipaing net a tuanlakongtohihlokyatmyakotayokkhuhkhaanpuaikia” (USA was worry about the demonstration against China in Vietnam, China said the controversial sea area is its).”The Daily Eleven News Paper, 17 May 2014 (Saturday), p. 12.

Editor.“Naingngandawtamata U Thein Sein Japan ngaingnganhnahkchinpahmihthektiasivuitohtekyokyan Tokyo myothohzok shih” (U Thein Sein, Myanmar president Arrived in Tokyo to Attend a Meeting).”The Mirror Newspaper,13 December 2014., p. 3.

NyutLwin. “Pyetunpaingngoitiopytukopyanpe pa” Return the finance of the Public to the Public.” The News Watch Weekly, Vol. 8, No.,39. March 3, 2014. P. 11-12.

“TayoutNaing Ngan hma a ngyeinpoaboui yin hnimhuthnanhmuhmyapyulokkauh yah ne chin hma let khan tih a soe yah myaihlauihmahmuhchaukphitkyong Asian pyituh forum phitmyutyeikomiteeOukathahpyuakcia” (Asian People forum, President said that the controversial Investment of China depends on Local Governments).”TheDaily Eleven Newspaper, March 26, 2014. P. 5.

MyatThit.“Wada phiatchi ye ockhma” (Under Propagating).”The Daily Eleven News, 12 March (Thursday), 10.

Phyoe Wai. “15000 lakh kyats compensating for the land along the road between Mandalay and Yangon have been given to the land owners and the rest of compensation will be given in the coming budget year.” the Daily Eleven News Paper, 6 January 2015, P.7.

ThetTheing Win. “each 15 lakh kyat will be compensated for each acre of land occupied for the airport in Pakoku.” The Daily Eleven News Paper, 19 February 2015 (Thursday), p.23.

Phyo Wei.“Chin Pyine a twin Tayok company aa mueitaungphataungtattuhlongan aa tetah khan mya ma luksawng se lo,” (The natives opposed China Company to Produce metals from Muetaung and Phataung).”TheDaily Eleven News Paper, September 18, 2013, p. 16.

Tin MaungHtwe: “Khaihkhaingye party kongsawng a choh yin chehmuhtintantehyanHantavati U Win Tin Thaik Ton,” (U Win Tin advised some USDP members to take Ethics Courses).”The Public Image Journal, Vol., II, No. 21 (Friday, February 21, 2014): A.

Wai Liin Aung. “Tayokalan mi shuhsandahpiahhmuh a toetDawNaw Own HlanehKo Tin Thuttoh a hmuhyaneh (December 10) tuan Dagon Myohne Taya Yung hnahputoiyungthoksitsei mi” (DawNaw Own Hlah and Ko Tin Thut will go to the Court of Dangon Township).”The Daily Eleven Newspaper, Decenber 10, 2013 (Tuesday), p.16-17.

Win Yan PhyoOo and Soe Min Thaik. “Tamawayamacheingualokngaanaseikmyittinyanatuatngaingngan taka san hnongmyianehhnaing sin pa kahatohnongmyit ma ne taw tayokcheingui American $ taan 100 kohlouattawkosahleykanhkuat taw le hluattaw a tiphuh” (Legislative Council passed US$ 100 million loan by Exim Bank of China even though the percentage interest is much higher than any other countries’).”The Daily Eleven Newpaper, August 23, 2013 (Thursday), p. 3.

“2010 khuhhnihtuanphit paw kheh taw naingnganzi too chaaphitsinmyia” Peculiar Political Events in 2010).”The Weekly Eleven Journal, December 29, 2010, p.10.

Electronic Resources

Aung Tun. “Myanmar’s China Problem.”13 October 2013, http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2013/10/30/myanmars-China-problem (accessed 20 March 2014).

“TayokPyituTamataNaing Ngan nehPyithawngsuTamata Myanmar Naing Nga Dawputuetatingthokpianchet” (The released news by The Republic of China and The Republic of Union of Myanmar),http://www.president-office.gov.mm/?q=briefing-room/news/2015/09/05/id-9586 (accessed 8 September 2015).

Xinhua.China’s Yunnan province offers relief aid to Myanmar flood victims, August 8, 2015,http://english.gov.cn/news/international_exchanges/2015/08/08/content_281475163535298.htm (accessed3October 3, 2015).

Heinlein, Peter.“Russia, China Veto UN Resolution on Burma,” 13 January 2007, http://tc-press.blogspot.com/2007/01/russia-China-veto-un-resolution-on.html (accessed 9 May 2011).

Global Witness.“Guns, Cronies and Crops: How Military, Political and Business Cronies Have Conspired to Grab Land in Myanmar,http://www.globalwitness.org/gunscroniescrops/ (accessed 31 March 2015).

Kinapped.“Mining in Myanmar” May 24th, 2014,http://www.economist.com/news/business/21602719-chinese-miner-tries-be-nice-kidnapped (accessed 11 October 2015).

Presidents’ Office.Letpadaung Investigation Commission Issue Final Report, Myanmar Updated Law, April 2013. http://www.charltonslaw.com/letpadaung-investigation-commission-issue-final-report/ (accessed 11 October 2015).

NaingKoKo. “Corruption in Myanmar: take down real villains” October 16, 2013,http://www.nationmultimedia.com/opinion/Corruption-in-Myanmar-take-down-the-real-villains-30217137.html (accessed 10 March 2014).

“Free Market” http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/free+market (accessed 17 May 2014).

“Guanxi.” The Vancouver Sun, http://blogs.vancouversun.com/2014/05/31/guanxi-chinese-networking-custom-has-double-moral-edge/ (accessed June 14, 2014).

“You say Guanxi, I say Schmoozing” November 18, 2007,http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2007-11-18/you-say-guanxi-i-say-schmoozing(accessed June 14, 2014).

Chinese NGO donate mosquito nets and solar power equipment to Myanmar people,” http://mm.China-embassy.org/eng/sgxw/t1098058.htm(accessed March 15, 2014).

“Chinese friendship associations donate 100,000 yuan to quake hit Myanmar” 09:52, March 31, 2011, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/7336063.html (accessed March 17, 2014).

“Myanmar-China friendship body donates rice for quake-hit victims20:04, May 08, 2013,http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90883/8237280.html(accessed March 17, 2014).

“China's southern region provides $250,000 donation to cyclone-battered Myanmar”10:01, May 11, 2008,http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2008-05/10/content_8142094.htm (accessed on November 15, 2015).

 

“Myanmar Donors Profile” March 2012, http://www.mof.go.jp/about_mof/councils/customs_foreign_exchange/sub-foreign_exchange/proceedings/material/gai240625/03.pdf(accessed March 17, 2014).

“Japan to forgive €2.8 billion of Burma’s debt,” http://www.thejournal.ie/japan-to-forgive-e2-8-billion-of-burmas-debt-424992-Apr2012/(accessed March 15, 2014).

“Germany Forgives Half of Myanmar's Debt,”http://article.wn.com/view/2014/02/11/Germany_forgives_half_of_Myanmars_debt_f/ (accessed March 15, 2014).

Sai Wansai.Presidential Amnesty: More Anger than Benefit for Releasing Chinese Loggers?” August 21, 2015,http://mizzima.com/news-opinion/presidential-amnesty-more-anger-benefit-releasing-chinese-loggers(accessed 20 September, 2015).

Commonwork/Advocate Press 1997, http://www.stonesoup.coop/historybelow/historybelow.htm ,(accessed on 13th January 2011).

Nirmala.What is History from Below? Discuss it with reference to the history writing in India,”http://www.preservearticles.com/2012031627576/what-is-history-from-below-discuss-it-with-reference-to-the-history-writing-in-india.html(accessed April 13, 2014).



“2010 khuhhnihtuanphit paw kheh taw naingnganzi too chaaphitsinmyia” Peculiar Political Events in 2010), The Weekly Eleven Journal, December 29, 2010, 10.

Tin MaungHtwe, “Khaihkhaingye party kongsawng a choh yin chehmuhtintantehyanHantavati U Win Tin Thaik Ton,” (U Win Tin advised some USDP members to take Ethics Courses), The Public Image Journal, Vol., II, No. 21 (Friday, February 21, 2014, p. A.

Aung Tun, “Myanmar’s China Problem” October 13, 2013, http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2013/10/30/myanmars-China-problem (accessed March 20, 2014).

KhinOo Ta, “Taya letluatsakamyanehCheikkhaingye party ye 2013 ala ala,” (Careless words and USDP’s 2015 Election), The Irrawaddy Weekly Journal, vol. I, NO., 10. March 9, 2014. P. 9.

“TayokPyituTamataNaing Ngan nehPyithawngsuTamata Myanmar Naing Nga Dawputuetatingthokpianchet” (The released news by The Republic of China and The Republic of Union of Myanmar) http://www.president-office.gov.mm/?q=briefing-room/news/2015/09/05/id-9586 (accessed September 8, 2015).

Xinhua, China’s Yunnan province offers relief aid to Myanmar flood victims, August 8, 2015.http://english.gov.cn/news/international_exchanges/2015/08/08/content_281475163535298.htm (Accessed on October 3, 2015).

Aung Tun, “Myanmar’s China Problem” October 13, 2013, http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2013/10/30/myanmars-China-problem (accessed March 20, 2014).

                [8]   David I. Steinberg, Burma: The State of Myanmar (Washington D.C: Georgetown University Press, 2011), 235.

                [9] Peter Heinlein, “Russia, China Veto UN Resolution on Burma,” 13 January 2007, http://tc-press.blogspot.com/2007/01/russia-China-veto-un-resolution-on.html (accessed May 9, 2011).

Pyay ToauiNaing “2015 hma vision tuai aa paying the pauimyophyit se chin te” (I Want 2015 Election be competing of Visions) Interview with U Min Zen by Editorial Board 14-19, YaNanh Tit Magazine, No 60, (December 2013) 8. Min Zin is a PHD candidate of Political Science Subject, University of California, Berkeley. He is an author of The Irrawady, the Bang Kok post, Far Eastern Economic Review, Wall Street Journal.

Hannah Beech “China’s Power Play: Why the nation and its leader are flexing their muscles” 26-29, inThe Time Vol.186, No. 11, 2015.

Bama AaMaan, “Sakaasakaaphawphanmiasakaathehmazatihpiah” (Our Words shows our hearts), The News Watch Weekly Journal, November 26, 2013, p. 11.

Aung Tun, “Myanmar’s China Problem,” ” October 13, 2013, http://www.worldpolicy.org/blog/2013/10/30/myanmars-China-problem (accessed March 20, 2014).

             NaingKoKo, “Corruption in Myanmar: take down real villains” October 16, 2013 http://www.nationmultimedia.com/opinion/Corruption-in-Myanmar-take-down-the-real-villains-30217137.html (March 10, 2014).

NyutLwin, “Pyetunpaingngoitiopyitukopyanpe pa” Return the finance of the Public to the Public, in the News Watch Weekly, Vol. 8, No.,39, March 3, 2014. P. 11-12.

Aung Ye Ko and ToewaiPhoy, “Yangon TaingTatahkyi shih chukyawainthongsuh 53000 kopheshiayantatihpeisamyathatmaan pep oh” (A letter of Warning to remove from their illegal residence reached 53000 families in yangon), The Daily Eleven Newspaper, March 2, 2014, p.20.

NyutLwin, “Pyetunpaingngoitiopytukopyanpe pa” Return the finance of the Public to the Public, in the News Watch Weekly, Vol. 8, No.,39, March 3, 2014. P. 11-12.

Global Witness, “Guns, Cronies and Crops: How Military, Political and Business Cronies Have Conspired to Grab Land in Myanmar”http://www.globalwitness.org/gunscroniescrops/ (Accessed 31 March 2015).

Phyoe Wai, “15000 lakh kyats compensating for the land along the road between Mandalay and Yangon have been given to the land owners and the rest of compensation will be given in the coming budget year” in the Daily Eleven News Paper, 6 January 2015, 7. ThetTheing Win, “each 15 lakh kyat will be compensated for each acre of land occupied for the airport in Pakoku” in The Daily Eleven News Paper, 19 February 2015 (Thursday), 23.

A NgeThwe and Nilar, “Myanmar ihte-u chin winngweti, American Dollar 1105 phitpi, senyehmuhhnong 37.5 sihne taw kyawk,deta a twin senyehmuhhnong a mhit ma song ngaingngantenaingnganphit ne se phitchawngkabah ban ih a sinyen khan satweinphawpyah” (Myanmar’s GDP is 1105 US$ and 37.5 population is under poverty line that it is one of the poorest countries Asia region), The Daily Eleven News, 22 February 2015 (Sunday), 17.

NyutLwin, “Pyetunpaingngoitiopytukopyanpe pa” Return the finance of the Public to the Public, in the News Watch Weekly, Vol. 8, No.,39, March 3, 2014. P. 11-12.

“2010 Toinpomokyawcialatoaw Asia World Company neh U Thun MyitNaing” (Asia World Company and U Thun MyitNaing becoming Popular in 2010), inTheWeekly Eleven Journal, December 29, 2010.P.C.

Win Latt, “Ta ngeihngeihsisennetawirrawady” (Flowing Irrawady) In Irrawadykotawh ma luan chin pa (I remember the Irrawady), Edit, DeweiTanhsin, Seng Yong Sape, No. 5, p.24-26.

Bama AaMaan, “Sakaaphawphanmia,sakaathehmazatihpiah” (Our Words shows our hearts), The News Watch Weekly Journal, November 26, 2013, p. 11.

SYMZ/KZY, “Myitsong a pi tatyatsaingyanlu 4000 sandahphawthot” (400 People demonstrate for stopping Myitson Dam Project,”The Democracy Today, Vol. 1, No., 15 (March 15, Saturday), p. 17.

NyutLwin, “Pyetunpaingngoitiopytukopyanpe pa” Return the finance of the Public to the Public, in The News Watch Weekly, Vol. 8, No.,39, March 3, 2014. P. 11-12.

ThawngTuye Bah Oh, “Democracy or Demo-crony” in The Sun Rays Weekly News Journal, vol. 1, No. 25 (19 April 2014).

Kinapped, “Mining in Myanmar” May 24th, 2014. http://www.economist.com/news/business/21602719-chinese-miner-tries-be-nice-kidnapped (accessed 11 October 2015).

Letpadaung Investigation Commission Issue Final Report, Myanmar Updated Law, April 2013. http://www.charltonslaw.com/letpadaung-investigation-commission-issue-final-report/ (accessed 11 October 2015).

David I Steinberg and Hongwei Fan, Modern China-Myanmar Relations: Dilemmas of Mutual Dependence(Copenhagen, Demark: NIAS Press, 2012)197-198.

Steinberg and Fan, 200.

Steinberg and Fan, 257.

Steinberg and Fan, 378.

MyatThit, “Wada phiatchi ye ockhma” (Under Propagating) In Daily Eleven News, 12 March (Thursday), 10.

“Free Market” http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/free+market (accessed 17 May 2014).

“Myanmar, Tayok, America, tong pointsaingpupong la ngainghma la” (Can Myanmar, China, and American cooperate in the Future?)The News Watch Weekly Journal, Decenber 17, 2013, p.38.

“Guanxi” The Vancouver Sun http://blogs.vancouversun.com/2014/05/31/guanxi-chinese-networking-custom-has-double-moral-edge/ (accessed June 14, 2014).

“ You say Guanxi, I say Schmoozing” November 18, 2007 http://www.businessweek.com/stories/2007-11-18/you-say-guanxi-i-say-schmoozing (accessed June 14, 2014).

“Guanxi” The Vancouver Sun http://blogs.vancouversun.com/2014/05/31/guanxi-chinese-networking-custom-has-double-moral-edge/ (accessed June 14, 2014).

Kristine Kwok, “Myanmar’s Dilemma” In The South China Morning Post. Friday December 4, 2015.

Xinhua, China’s Yunnan province offers relief aid to Myanmar flood victims, August 8, 2015.http://english.gov.cn/news/international_exchanges/2015/08/08/content_281475163535298.htm (Accessed on October 3, 2015).

Chinese NGO donate mosquito nets and solar power equipment to Myanmar people” http://mm.China-embassy.org/eng/sgxw/t1098058.htm   (accessed March 15, 2014).

“Chinese friendship associations donate 100,000 yuan to quake hit Myanmar” 09:52, March 31, 2011, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/90776/90883/7336063.html (accessed March 17, 2014).

“Myanmar-China friendship body donates rice for quake-hit victims20:04, May 08, 2013 http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90883/8237280.html(accessed March 17, 2014).

“China's southern region provides $250,000 donation to cyclone-battered Myanmar”10:01, May 11, 2008.

Monyo, The Republic of the Union of Myanmar, The President Office, “Chinese Companies and Mangalar Magazine Staffs donate Relief Supplies.”29 August (Accessed on September 28, 2015).

Xinhua, “China’s Yunnan province offers relief aid to Myanmar flood victims”Aug 8,2015 9:56 AMhttp://english.gov.cn/news/international_exchanges/2015/08/08/content_281475163535298.htm (Accessed September 8, 2015).

“Myanmar Donors Profile” March 2012, http://www.mof.go.jp/about_mof/councils/customs_foreign_exchange/sub-foreign_exchange/proceedings/material/gai240625/03.pdf (accessed March 17, 2014).

NL, “Myanmar Naing Ngan ih a chekhaan a sokaongmyiaphoiphoeyee a tuaet Japan kah US Dollar taan 800 thokche mi” (Japan will loan US Dollar 800 million to Myanmar for the development of basic infrastructure) the Hit Thait Journal, Vol., II, No. 33, 10.

Win yanPhyoOo and Soe Min Thaik, “Tamawayamacheingualokngaanaseikmyittinyanatuatngaingngan taka san hnongmyianehhnaing sin pa kahatohnongmyit ma ne taw tayokcheingui American $ taan 100 kohlouattawkosahleykanhkuat taw le hluattaw a tiphuh” (Legislative Council passed US$ 100 million loan by Exim Bank of China even though the percentage interest is much higher than any other countries’), The Daily Eleven Newpaper, August 23, 2013 (Thursday), p. 3.

Aye Tiri Win, “Kaba ban yeh a too meh cheingoidollertaan 140 hliatsitkandahhma tong saui mi” The World Bank’s Loan US$ 140 million received by Myanmar is to be invested on Electric power” The Modern Weekly Journal Vol. 364., July 5, 2013 (Thursday), p. 2.

“Naingngandawtamata U Thein Sein Japan ngaingnganhnahkchinpahmihthektiasivuitohtekyokyan Tokyo myothohzok shih” (U Thein Sein, Myanmar president Arrived in Tokyo to Attend a Meeting),The Mirror Newspaper, December 13, 2014., p. 3.

“Japan to forgive €2.8 billion of Burma’s debt” http://www.thejournal.ie/japan-to-forgive-e2-8-billion-of-burmas-debt-424992-Apr2012/ (accessed March 15, 2014).

“Germany Forgives Half Of Myanmar's Debt”http://article.wn.com/view/2014/02/11/Germany_forgives_half_of_Myanmars_debt_f/ (accessed March 15, 2014).

KhinOo Ta, “Taya letluatsakamyanehCheikkhaing ye party ye 2013 alaala,” (Careless words and USDP’s 2015 Election), The Irrawaddy Weekly Journal, vol. I, NO., 10. March 9, 2014. P. 9.

“TayoutNaing Ngan hma a ngyeinpoaboui yin hnimhuthnanhmuhmyapyulokkauh yah ne chin hma let khan tih a soe yah myaihlauihmahmuhchaukphitkyong Asian pyituh forum phitmyutyeikomiteeOukathahpyuakcia” (Asian People forum, President said that the controversial Investment of China depends on Local Governments),Daily Eleven Newspaper, March 26, 2014. P. 5.

Yamin, “Democracy a yeehmaathatakhaanko, pelokshintaankhuahpehma le” (How far the opposition parties could have opportunity for struggle for its survival), The Street View Journal, vol. 3, No.,9. (March 3, 2014, Monday, 18.

U Aung Khin, “Myitsongsimaankengkoshehtoloksaung lo ti huh pyawkyia la taw tayoktaanamatkyi” (China ambassador said he wanted to continue Myitsong dam project), inMoontehne Weekly News, vol.,1. No., 12. 7 March, 2014. P.c.

“Vietnam tuontayoksanhchin ye sandahpyahhmuhmya a tuatsoeyengkyong America Pyaui Kya, a nyeinpuayipaing net a tuanlakongtohihlokyatmyakotayokkhuhkhaanpuaikia” (USA was worry about the demonstration against China in Vietnam, China said the controversial sea area is its) the Daily Eleven News Paper, 17 May 2014 (Saturday), 12.

AFP, “Asean Warns China, its position on South China Sea Area can destroy peace between China and Asean Countries), In Daily Eleven News, 28 April 2015 (Tuesday), 12.

YondenLhatoo, “Asian rivals ‘can compete and thrive” The South China Morning Post., Volum 71, NO. 262. Monday, September 21, 2015, A1.

Phyo Wei, “Chin Pyine a twin Tayok company aa mueitaungphataungtattuhlongan aa tetah khan mya ma luksawng se lo,” (The natives opposed China Company to Produce metals from Muetaung and Phataung), The Daily Eleven News Paper, September 18, 2013, Wednesday, p. 16.

Wai Liin Aung, “Tayokalan mi shuhsandahpiahhmuh a toetDawNaw Own HlanehKo Tin Thuttoh a hmuhyaneh (December 10) tuan Dagon Myohne Taya Yung hnahputoiyungthoksitsei mi” (DawNaw Own Hlah and Ko Tin Thut will go to the Court of Dangon Township), The Daily Eleven Newspaper, Decenber 10, 2013 (Tuesday), 16-17.

Linn Thaeit, “Lepataungtaaungtwe Sun Kheh le pi: PointlinnMyntaHmuh le Shih, SimanKhahkhaihmuhtuai ma hmakheh yin Teyok le khauk ma ne yah pa bu” (Blood Shed in Lepataung: China would not be fear of, if the project would have had accountability and well administration) The Myanmar Herald, Vol. 3, No.43, January 3-9, 2015, p. 19.

Iris, “Tit khotihtayokngaingta 120 khanh aa a yeyuhmuhpyitumyasaukyih ne pi, tiseiupadi ayah a soeyahkah a yeiyou mi” (Over 120 Chinese who illegally entered into Myanmar and stole the wood would be taken action in accordance with the law of Myanmar” in Pyi Myanmar Journal No. 956 15 January 2015., 15.

Sai Wansai,Presidential Amnesty: More Anger than Benefit for Releasing Chinese Loggers?” August 21, 2015.http://mizzima.com/news-opinion/presidential-amnesty-more-anger-benefit-releasing-chinese-loggers (Accessed 20 September, 2015).

R. Dean Peterson, A Concise History of Christianity (Belmont, California: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1993), 148.

Commonwork/Advocate Press 1997, http://www.stonesoup.coop/historybelow/historybelow.htm (accessed on 13th January 2011).

MyoKyaw, “U Ye Htut Laing Ma ne yeh law Huh la kyih ta Daw Aung San Suu Kyi Pyaw” (Aung San Suu Kyi said that I came here to see whether U Ye Htut is clever) in The Hot News Weekly, Vol., 5, No., 241, May 8-14, 2015. 34.

Commonwork/Advocate Press 1997, http://www.stonesoup.coop/historybelow/historybelow.htm, (accessed on 13th January 2011).

E.J. Hobsbawm, “History from Below-Some Reflection” in History from Below, edited by Frederick Krantz 13-27,(New York and Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), 13.

Nirmala,What is History from Below? Discuss it with reference to the history writing in India”

http://www.preservearticles.com/2012031627576/what-is-history-from-below-discuss-it-with-reference-to-the-history-writing-in-india.html (accessed April 13, 2014).

Richard Chan Chum Hei, “An Exegetical Study of the Good Samaritan” in RAYS: MIT Journal of Theology, vol 11, January, 2010, pp. 40-50.

Joel Za Hlei Kap is a lecturer at the Chin Christian Institute of Theology (CCIT), Falam, Chin State, Myanmar. He got his doctorate from the Divinity School of Chung Chi College, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong in 2013. This ethical norm is taken from Joel’s preaching at the Divinity School.

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